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11/29/2011

Shippoo cloisonne

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Enamel エナメル cloisonne

shippoo 七宝 (しっぽう)/ 七宝焼 cloisonne

hooroo saiku ほうろう細工 enamel craft
enameru peinto エナメルペイント enamel paint
enameru sen エナメル線 enamel wire
ginbari jippoo (ginbari shippoo) 銀貼七宝 cloisonee with silver foil
shippoomon しっぽうもん【七宝文】 overlapping circles




Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects, in recent centuries using vitreous enamel, and in older periods also inlays of cut gemstones, glass, and other materials. The resulting objects can also be called cloisonné. The decoration is formed by first adding compartments (cloisons in French) to the metal object by soldering or adhering silver or gold wires or thin strips placed on their edges. These remain visible in the finished piece, separating the different compartments of the enamel or inlays, which are often of several colors.
Cloisonné enamel objects are worked on with enamel powder made into a paste, which then needs to be fired in a kiln.
..... Other ways of using the technique have been developed, but are of minor importance. In 19th century Japan it was used on pottery vessels with ceramic glazes, and it has been used with lacquer and modern acrylic fillings for the cloisons.
A version of cloisonné technique is often used for lapel badges, logo badges for many objects such as cars, including BMW models, and other applications, though in these the metal base is normally cast with the compartments in place, so the use of the term cloisonne', though common, is questionable. That technique is correctly referred by goldsmiths, metalsmiths and enamellists as champlevé.
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tootai ningyoo 陶体人形 (totai dolls)
ceramic dolls with enamel

陶体の人形

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The best-knowntotai (ceramic) dolls are the enamel-decorated figures from the Arita and Satsuma kilns. The plasticity of clay and the qualities that can be achieved through the use of glazes and colourants give them a very special quality. In the case of Hakata dolls, which are still made in large numbers today, colours are painted on to a biscuit-fired but unglazed ceramic body.
source : www.nihon-kogeikai.com



source : nisiogitougei

Mechanical doll with a clock - a combination of Japanese and Western aesthetic.
by Mudo Yuriko 夢童由里子 (Mudoo Yuriko)


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akasuke 赤透け transparent red




source : katoshippo.shop-pro.jp

One of the most difficult techniques is the transparent red, here with a vase of a botan peonia.
This is a family tradition passed on only to the eldest son of the craftsman.

「金赤」と呼ばれる赤色透明釉(赤透け)

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Owari Shippo 尾張七宝 Aichi



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Cloisonne enamel ware has been archeologically discovered in Japan in ancient mound tombs of the 7th Century. From that time onward, it was sometimes used in fixtures in temples and castles.
Cloisonne enamel ware spread throughout Japan due to the discovery of a manufacturing technique by Tsunekichi Kaji of Nagoya City in 1833.
Since then, the manufacturing of cloisonne enamel ware rapidly spread, with Owari in Aichi Prefecture becoming the center of production.
Cloisonne enamel ware
first became internationally recognized in the mid 19th Century at the International exposition.
Since its introduction at the Paris International Exposition in 1867, many pieces of cloisonne enamel ware from Japan have been displayed at every International Exposition.
Many artisans from Aichi,
such as Kodenji Hayashi, received awards for their works, spreading the fame of Owari cloisonne enamel ware.
From the mid 19th Century to the beginning of the 20th Century, various creative designs were added by Owari cloisonne, but due to suspension of production during World War II and other factors, some techniques have been lost. However, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry designated Sippo as a traditional handicraft representing Japan in 1985.
- source : shippoyaki.jp/e_history -




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The vase features a pigeon blood ginbari ground with leaves under the cloisonné and the pattern is plum blossom 'ume' .




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- source : bonsaiinformation.com -

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Look at more items HERE
source : calamel.jp カラメル 


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Tokyo Shippo 東京七宝 Cloisonne Enamelware

■ Traditional Technologies and Techniques
1- Pre-baking (karayaki 空焼き): This process removes oils from the base material.
2- Acid polishing (kirinsu 酸洗い(キリンス)): The pre-baked, unenameled material and oxide film formed through baking are washed with nitric acid, etc.
3- Application 盛り込み: Enamel is applied according to the design using a bamboo spatula (hose) and brush.
4- Drying: The workpiece is naturally dried for approximately three to five hours.
5- Initial firing 小成: The workpiece is fired at 800°C - 850°C (1,472°F - 1,562°F).
6- Polishing: Rough polishing is carried out of the workpiece's surface using a #180 whetstone.
7- Final firing 上げ焼き: The workpiece is fired and completed.

■ Traditionally Used Raw Materials
Base materials: copper, silver, gold, red brass, platinum
Enamel: enamel silica, enamel
素地:銅、銀、金、丹銅、プラチナ
釉薬:釉薬硅石、釉薬

■ History and Characteristics
It is said that during the early Edo Period, Hirata Hikoshiro 平田彦四郎(道仁)(1591-1646) (also known as Hirata Donin) learned the art of cloisonne enamelware (shippo) from a Korean visitor to Japan, and that he subsequently applied colors to the concave surfaces of such pieces. Hirata was the founder of the craft of Tokyo Shippo, and he created famous works as a master craftsman while working in the service of the Tokugawa Shogunate. A beautiful tsuba 鍔 (sword guard) is one of his most well-known pieces. Successive generations of the Hirata family resided in Edo while guarding their secret shippo techniques until the early Meiji Period.

When the Fifth International Exposition was held in Paris in the third year of the Keio Era (1868), the Shogunate dispatched a delegation to represent Japan and assert the country's influence abroad. During the event, delegation members from the Satsuma Domain (modern Kagoshima Prefecture) had an honorary medal created called "the Order of Satsuma". This decoration was modeled after the French Legion of Honour. It was subsequently presented to Napoleon III and it received high praise. This act raised the awareness of honorary decorations, which led the Council of the Left, the predecessor of the new Meiji Government's Chamber of Elders, to discuss the establishment of a Japanese honors system. In the sixth year of the Meiji Era (1873), the Chamber of Elders requested that a mint produce medals for such an honors system; however, the mint workers lacked experience in enamelware production techniques (shippo). This led the government to ask the well-known Hirata family who had worked for the Edo Shogunate for assistance. A prototype award was completed by Hirata Haruyuki and this eventually became the medal bestowed along with the award of the Order of the Rising Sun.

Currently, the Tokyo Shippo Industry Association creates items in various categories using shippo production techniques. Such categories include both women's and men's decorative accessories, automobile emblems, golf markers, school and company badges, along with items for a vast range of other applications.

Tokyo Shippo Industry Association
- source : www.sangyo-rodo.metro.tokyo.jp


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shippoomaki 七宝巻 Shippomaki Sushi



. Washoku - Mandala Arrangements .

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. Regional Folk Toys from Japan .


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2 comments:

Gabi Greve - Darumapedia said...

37 Tokyo Shippo (Cloisonne Enamelware)
東京七宝

Gabi Greve said...

https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Art-of-Japanese-Cloisonne-Enamel-History-Techniques-and-Artists-1600-to-the-Present/120401808132969


The Art of Japanese Cloisonne Enamel:
History, Techniques and Artists, 1600 to the Present

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